Sleep Disorder Multiplies Depression Risk

March 30, 2012

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By Amanda Gardner

FRIDAY, March 30, 2012 (Health.com) — People with sleep apnea, a breathing disorder that causes frequent sleep disturbances, often feel tired and unfocused during the day. But that may not be the only fallout: New research suggests the disorder also dramatically increases the risk of depression.

Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that men with diagnosed sleep apnea are more than twice as likely as other men to exhibit signs of clinical depression, such as feeling hopeless and uninterested in everyday activities. The picture was even worse among women: A sleep apnea diagnosis increased the risk of depression symptoms fivefold.

What’s more, the study suggests that sleep apnea is underdiagnosed. More than 80% of the people who reported classic symptoms such as snorting or gasping for breath on most nights of the week had never received an official diagnosis. This group, too, had a threefold higher risk of depression compared to people who had no trouble breathing at night.

“We’re underdiagnosing this problem,” says Carl Boethel, M.D., a sleep specialist at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, in Temple, who was not involved in the study. “Physicians in the sleep community and in the psychiatric community need to do a better job of screening and getting effective treatment.”

Sleep apnea and related problems occur when the airway becomes blocked during sleep, restricting breathing. The disorder can be caused by several factors, including oversized tonsils, the structure of a person’s airway, or excess fat surrounding the windpipe. Sleep apnea is closely associated with obesity, a fact the researchers took into account by controlling for body mass index in their analysis.

The study, which appears in the April issue of the journal SLEEP, is the first of its kind to look at a representative cross-section of the U.S. population. The data was drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), an annual survey conducted by the CDC.

Six percent of men and 3% of women had received a sleep apnea diagnosis, the survey found, while 7% of men and 4% of women reported breathing problems on at least five nights per week.

Depression was assessed using a standard questionnaire that asked how often during the past two weeks the participants had “little interest or pleasure in doing things” or felt “down, depressed or hopeless,” for instance. Five percent of men and 8% of women had scores indicating “probable” depression, according to the researchers.

Next page: Sleep interruptions could cause brain changes


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